LEAVERS LOOM : Birth of an industry
Introduced in Calais during the first half of the XIX century, the loom produced only tulle which would be embroidered by hand or by machine. The loom are activated manually, and thanks to the birth of the driving force there was he first groupment of craftmen in manufactures.
The adaptation of Jacquard’s rules, around 1840, is a great innovation which, connected to the steam force, allow the development of this industry always traded by craftmen. So it was called looms “Jacquardized” in order to definite theses activities of several tonnes which imitate the loom by hand with an extraordinary speed.
The Jacquard System
The Jacquard system base on the application of the binary logic, all or nothing.It allows the threads to operate the intertwinment nessary to the achievement of patterns, put in a back of loom.
Thanks to a device of stalk rods, called droppers, and of cardboards punched, each position of threads embroiderer and guimpes is determinated in each motion, and given by action of bars so as to reproduce the pattern wanted. Thos process allow the demultiplication of the same pattern on all width useful to a loom.
The Leavers loom
In spite of many principeles of loom manufacture, existing in the beginning of XIX century, only the Leavers has known to improve in Calais, especially thanks to the appointment of Leavers system left from 1834.
The looms “ go-through” or “leam bar” are more moderns now because they have the first characteristics, represented by the unity trolley-spool which is the main element. Added by two or three Jacquards which lead 250 stalks rods of the loom.
According to the complexity of the lace, a loom of 12 points over 224 inches (5.60 meters) will include more than 6000 trolleys, 13000 threads, 2000 threaders embroiderers, it’s the same for the guimpes, that is 23000 threads all in all.